50 Data Engineering Interview Questions and Answers

Pratik Kumar Roy
6 min readAug 10, 2023


The few most-asked data engineering questions will clear basic understanding of what a data engineer does in day-to-day life.

Data Engineering Basics:

1. What is Data Engineering?
Data Engineering involves designing, constructing, and maintaining systems that collect store, and process data for analysis and reporting.

2. What’s the difference between a data engineer and a data scientist?
Data engineers focus on building and maintaining the infrastructure to handle and process data, while data scientists focus on analyzing and deriving insights from the data.

3. Explain the ETL process.
ETL stands for Extract, Transform, Load. It involves extracting data from various sources, transforming it to fit the target data model, and then loading it into a data warehouse or database.

4. What are some popular ETL tools?
Apache NiFi, Apache Spark, Talend, Apache Airflow, Informatica, Microsoft SSIS, etc.

5. What is a data pipeline?
A data pipeline is a sequence of processes and operations that move data from source to destination, often involving extraction, transformation, and loading.

6. What is data warehousing?
Data warehousing is the process of collecting, storing, and managing data from various sources to support business intelligence and reporting.

7. Explain the concept of data partitioning.
Data partitioning involves dividing a large dataset into smaller, more manageable segments based on certain criteria, often improving query performance.

Data Storage:

8. What are the differences between a data warehouse and a data lake?
Data warehouses store structured data for analytical querying, while data lakes store raw and unstructured data for various data processing tasks.

9. What is the purpose of data normalization in databases?
Data normalization reduces data redundancy and improves data integrity by organizing data into separate tables to minimize duplication.

10. Explain the CAP theorem.
The CAP theorem states that in a distributed data system, you can’t have all three of Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance simultaneously.

11. What is sharding in database systems?
Sharding involves distributing a large database across multiple servers to improve performance and scalability.

12. What is the difference between a NoSQL and a relational database?
NoSQL databases are designed for unstructured or semi-structured data and offer better scalability, while relational databases are suitable for structured data and provide strong consistency.

Data Processing

13. What is Apache Hadoop?
— Hadoop is an open-source framework for processing and storing large datasets across a distributed cluster of computers.

14. Explain MapReduce.
— MapReduce is a programming model used to process and generate large datasets that can be parallelized across a distributed cluster.

15. What is Apache Spark?
Apache Spark is an open-source data processing and analytics engine that provides fast in-memory data processing capabilities.

16. What is the difference between batch processing and stream processing?
Batch processing involves processing data in large volumes at scheduled intervals, while stream processing deals with data in real-time as it’s generated.

17. How does data compression impact data processing?
Data compression reduces storage requirements and can improve data processing speed by reducing the amount of data that needs to be read from storage.

Data Modeling:

18. What is a data model?
A data model is a conceptual representation of how data is organized, stored, and accessed in a database system.

19. What’s the difference between a star schema and a snowflake schema?
Both are data warehousing techniques. Star schema has a centralized fact table connected to dimension tables, while snowflake schema normalizes dimension tables for reduced redundancy.

20. Explain the concept of schema evolution.
Schema evolution refers to the ability to modify the structure of a database schema over time while preserving existing data and applications.

21. What is a surrogate key?
A surrogate key is a unique identifier assigned to a record in a database, often used as a primary key, especially when the natural key is complex or prone to change.

Data Integration:

22. What is data federation?
Data federation is the process of integrating data from multiple sources in real-time to provide a unified view without copying the data into a central repository.

23. Explain the concept of change data capture (CDC).
CDC is a technique used to identify and capture changes made to a database so that these changes can be propagated to other systems or databases.

24. What is data virtualization?
Data virtualization allows users to access data from various sources without the need to physically move or replicate the data.

Data Quality:

25. Why is data quality important?
Data quality ensures that the data used for analysis and decision-making is accurate, complete, and reliable.

26. What are some common data quality issues?
Duplicate records, missing values, inconsistent formatting, outdated information, etc.

27. How can you address data quality issues?

Implement data validation, use standardized formats, conduct regular data cleansing, and establish data governance practices.

Data Governance and Security:

28. What is data governance?
Data governance involves defining policies, procedures, and standards for managing and ensuring the quality and security of data.

29. Explain data masking.
Data masking is the process of obfuscating sensitive data in a way that retains its original format but hides the actual values.

30. What is encryption and why is it important in data engineering?
Encryption is the process of converting data into a code to prevent unauthorized access. It’s important to protect sensitive data during storage and transmission.

Big Data Technologies:

31. What is Apache Kafka?
Kafka is a distributed event streaming platform used for building real-time data pipelines and streaming applications.

32. Explain HBase.
HBase is a distributed NoSQL database that’s optimized for random read and write operations on large datasets.

33. What is Apache Cassandra?
Cassandra is a distributed NoSQL database designed to handle large amounts of data across multiple nodes with high availability and scalability.

Cloud Data Engineering:

34. What are some advantages of using cloud services for data engineering?
Scalability, flexibility, reduced infrastructure management, pay-as-you-go pricing, and easier integration with other cloud services.

35. What is AWS Glue?
AWS Glue is a managed ETL service that makes it easy to move data between various data sources and data warehouses.

36. Explain Azure Data Factory.
Azure Data Factory is a cloud-based data integration service that allows you to create, schedule, and manage data pipelines.

Performance Optimization:

37. How can you optimize the performance of a data pipeline?
Use indexing, data partitioning, caching, and distributed processing frameworks to improve query and processing speed.

38. What is data denormalization?
Data denormalization involves storing redundant data to improve query performance at the expense of increased storage requirements.

Machine Learning Integration:

39. How can data engineering support machine learning initiatives?
Data engineers provide clean, well-structured data to data scientists for training and testing machine learning models.

40. Explain feature engineering in the context of machine learning.
Feature engineering is the process of creating new features or transforming existing features to enhance the performance of machine learning models.

Version Control and Collaboration:

41. Why is version control important in data engineering?
Version control helps track changes to code, scripts, and configurations, facilitating collaboration and ensuring reproducibility.

42. What is Git, and how is it used in data engineering?
Git is a version control system that tracks changes to code and files. It’s used to manage scripts, configurations, and code related to data pipelines.

Distributed Systems:

43. Explain the concept of eventual consistency.
Eventual consistency is a property of distributed systems where data changes will eventually propagate through the system, ensuring all replicas converge to the same state.

44. What is a distributed cache?
A distributed cache is a system that stores frequently accessed data in memory across multiple nodes to improve data access speed.

Coding and Scripting:

45. Which programming languages are commonly used in data engineering?
Python, Java, Scala, and SQL are commonly used for data engineering tasks.

46. Explain how to handle data schema changes in ETL pipelines.
Use techniques like schema evolution, versioning, and data transformation to accommodate schema changes without breaking the pipeline.

Job Scheduling and Automation:

47. What is Apache Airflow?
Apache Airflow is an open-source platform to programmatically author, schedule, and monitor workflows and data pipelines.

48. Why is job scheduling important in data engineering?
Job scheduling ensures that data pipelines, ETL processes, and other tasks run at specified times or triggers, improving automation and consistency.

Troubleshooting and Debugging:

49. How do you troubleshoot performance issues in a data pipeline?
Monitor resource utilization, identify bottlenecks, profile query execution, and optimize data processing steps.

50. What steps would you take to diagnose a data quality issue in a dataset?
Check for missing or duplicate records, validate data sources, inspect data transformations, and collaborate with data source owners.

Remember that interview questions can vary in depth and complexity depending on the position and company. These answers should provide a solid foundation for discussing data engineering concepts during an interview.

CR: chatgpt

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